Nepal is a Himalaya country situated between China and India. According to topographically divided into three regions: the Himalaya, the Hilly and the Terai to the south. The Himalaya regions are northern border of China due to the Himalayas very less people live and the Terai regions are boarder of India it covers 16% of the total land area.
The middle hills cover about 65% of the total land area of the country. The climate is pleasant and beautiful valleys are located in the middle hills. Areas in The Terai is the southern part of Nepal and is an extension of the It covers 17% of the total land area, providing fertile land as well as space for large industrial areas. Many people from the middle hills migrated to the Terai in search of farming land. The Terai has densely forest, inhabited only by the Royal Bengal tiger, leopard, and wild boar, several species of deer, one-horned rhino, wild elephant and gharial and mugger crocodiles. Chitwan National Park and Bardiya National Park are in the Terai region
Nepal has a very interesting and amazing bio-diversity due to its unique geographical feature and position lowlands 60m sea level to the world top Mt. Everest 8848m. Within short distance walk different vegetations, landscapes, people and languages can be observed.
Location: Situated between China and India
Area: 1,47,181 sq km
Regional Zone: 5
Population: About 26 million
People: More than 105 ethnic groups
Language: Nepal is national language
Currency: Nepali Rupees
National Bird: Daphne
National Animal: Cow
National Flower: Rhododendron
Religion: Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Muslim, Kirat, Sikh
Political system: Multiparty democracy
Winter: (December to February)
Spring: (March to May)
Summer: (June to August)
Autumn: (September to November)
History of Nepal
Before settlement in Kathmandu valley, it was big a lake. In Kathmandu itself, there were three lakes Kathmandu, between Pashupati and Gorkarna and between Gokarna and Sundarijal. The huge lake was popular in India and China Tibet. It is believed that a powerful tantrik Lama from China Tibet visited Kathmandu and the Lama drained out the lake to the south of Kathmandu then it formed a fertile suitable human settlement. A big valley where people happily started to live here.
It is said that the Kathmandu was a big lake in the beginning and later it was drained out by a powerful enchanter monk from Tibet. Later it became a huge green grassy land then the Gopals people from India came to the valley and settled here then ruled over the valley. The history explains their occupation was animal husbandry. They survived on animals cows. The first king of Gopal dynasty was King Bhuktaman but when did they ruled over the valley the time is not cleared. It is said that the Gopals ruled over Kathmandu valley for 521 years.
The Gopals Daynasty ruled Kathmandu valley for 521 years then these dynasty was overthrowned by Mahishpals and came to power. Mahishpals also came from India as we find them their occupation was buffaloes keepers and agriculture. The history tells three kings of Mahishpal dynasty ruled for 161 years.
The Gopals and Mahishpals Dynasty time period is not cleared but after Mahishpal Dynasty, Kirants ruled over the Kathmandu valley and Nepal. Kirats give the clear history of Nepal or the Nepal’s recorded history began with the Kiratis, who entered from north India. Kirats are believed they are Mongolian race who arrived in the Kathmandu in the 7th or 8th century BCE from north east India. The Kirats ruled for about 1000 to 1400 years. This dynasty ruled over Nepal is the longest ruling history of Nepal. (800 BCE-300 CE), they had a total of 29 kings during. Their popular and tremendous king was Yolambor, who is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. Gautam Buddha visited Kathmandu once at that time Kirats King Gasti was ruling over here. The north of Kathmandu Present Gokarna was their capital. King Scrounge introduced the Sirijunga script to the Limbus which is still in use today. The Kirants were the ancestor of present Rai, Limbus and Sunuwar of Nepal.
After Kirants Lichavi Dynasty started.It is believed that the Lichhavi migrated into Nepal from North India around250 A.D. At that time King of Kirat Gasti was ruling over Nepal. Lichavis attacked and defeated the Kirat king and established their kingdom in Kathmandu. After the defeat of Gasti, the Lichchhavi rule began in Nepal. Mandev, Amshuverma, Shiva Dev and Narendra Dev were some of the famous kings of Lichchhavi dynasty.
Lichchhavis’ were replaced by ‘Mallas’ in the 13th century A.D. The ‘Malla’ period was the flourished period of Nepal. Later the Malla Kingdom was divided among his descendants, forming more Kingdoms. The multiplicity of the Kingdoms was the cause of weakness and they soon fell into a state of anarchy, which paved the way for their eventual unification by King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha abolished them.
The Malla Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kathmandu Valley in Nepal, from the 12th to the 18th century. Nepal in the late 15th century, the Kathmandu Valley was divided into three kingdoms of Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon), Kathmandu (Kantipur) and Patan (Lalitpur).The Malla dynasty came to an end in 1769 when Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha invaded the valley.18 Malla kings ruled over Kathmandu valley.
Shah Kings in Nepal
Shah Dynasty was established by Prithvi Narayan Shah was born in Gorkha on Poush 27, 1779 BS. Gorkha is situated in the western part of Nepal and it is a present district of Nepal called Gorkha district. He conquered all the small kingdoms unified Nepal into a large kingdom. He trained his soldiers conquered most of the neighboring kingdoms and had developed friendship with the Kings of the three main cities that are Kathmandu, Lalitpur (Patan) and Bhaktapur. He first attacked in Kirtipur but was defeated twice and also lost one of his bravest army chief Kalu Pandey. After conquering these kingdoms, he turned his attention to the eastern and western kingdoms. He had successfully extended his territory to Darjeeling, now in India and while he was planning an attack on Sikkim, His health worsened and he died at the age of 56. His bravery and soldier power was extended in India, Tibet and Bhutan so Prithivir Narayan Shah’s time Nepalese were taken to Bhutan by the King of Bhutan to protect his country from India and Tibet.
People of Nepal
Tourists take interest to know about people and population of another country while visiting so briefly some information about people of Nepal has been listed. The population of Nepal is about 26 million who live in different regions, wearing different costumes and speaking different languages and dialects. Everest trail above Phapulu and Lukla area inhabitants are Sherpa who migrated from Tibet about 500 years ago. They are remarked as popular and profession in trekking industry.
The eastern zone of Nepal hill side in the slop villages and valleys is inhabitant of the Rais, Limbus, and Sunuwars who have their own customs and mother languages. These ethnics race is from Mongolia so called them Mongolian group or Kirati. About 7th or 8th century BC these people ruled in Nepal and later abolished by Lichavi dynasty and Kiratis fled to the east part of Nepal. Still these people serve in British Gurkha and India regiment.
Brahmins and Chhetris are the two highest castes; and live throughout the Kingdom. Bramins and Chhetris are known as Hindu. These people look different in physical feature then Mongoloid. The Newaris of the Kathmandu valley are a good in business. They follow Buddhism and Hinduism. The Gurung and Magars live mainly in the west and on the southern slopes of the Annapurna. The Magars and Gurungs are very highly respected in British and Indian Army regiment.
Tamangs live in almost half parts of Nepal from east to mid-west. They follow Buddhism. Tamang women wear a colorful wraparound skirt, a blouse, and scarf. On important occasions they wear chunky gold or brass ear and nose rings. Men wear both Nepali Daura, Suruwal Topi and coat, and shirt and pants. Some Tamangs wear their own traditional customs.
The Thakalis live mainly in the Kali Gandaki valley in central Nepal particularly Mustang district in Jomsom area, they follow Buddism and their occupation is tourisms and business. Thakalis are highly educated indigenous in Nepal.
Tharus, Yadavs, Rajvanshis, and Dhimals are spread generally in the Terai region. Tharus are one of the largest ethnic groups in terai region of Nepal. Tharus and Dhimals live in the area of Chitwan and Banke and Bardiya.
Religion and Culture
Nepal keeps all kinds of religions Hinduism and Buddhism, Muslim, Kirati, and Christian but Hindu and Buddhist share their faith in religion among them. Their sense of feeling and in their worship of common deities and the joint celebration of many festivals. Buddhism was introduced in Kathmandu valley by Emperor Ashoka of India around 250 BC.
The period of Kirat time Buddhist from Lumbini was spread. Hindu temples do not admit westerners to enter and even Hindu people are not allowed inside the temple with leather items such as belts and bags must be removed. To entering a Buddhist monastery the leather items are allowed. It is a better way of respect the people and religion so walk clockwise around Buddhist stupas, chortens or mani walls. The Government of Nepal has public holidays for each religion to respect them.
Nepali culture is traditional and respective each other in the family and society among ethnics. As you enter a Nepalese home and meet people it is polite to say “Namaste” remove your shoes. Some people may tell you to enter their house with shoes because of your comfortable but it is much appreciated.
Publicly kissing and embracing or body expose with cover little clothes is not respected in the villages and societies. About three or four decade ago a widow to re-marry was not socially acceptable in some groups but nowadays this custom is not in practice and also in those time parents sent their sons to school and daughters were used to work in the fields. Sons were allowed free to extra activities. Use of alcoholic in boys and girls is still in use in the villages. They eat food with right hands and left hand using to eat food is not considering good culture. The number of vegetarian people is increasing day by day.